Mineral Resources of Georgia by Alexander G. Tvalchrelidze

   Two basic circumstances have prevented the general public from getting acquainted with Georgian mineral resources:

  Firstly, in the Soviet period Georgia has always been considered as a country with undeveloped mineral resources. This opinion was due to its totalitarian economy, when bulk reserves of Georgian mineral resources were measured against the necessity in raw materials of the whole USSR. In reality, Georgia, of course, cannot be compared to such countries as, for instance, Australia, Bolivia, South Africa, Canada, USA, Russia, Kazakhstan, etc. with unique deposits of the world scale. On the other hand, Georgia is able to meet the requirements of its industry on main types of raw materials, and, partly, to organize their export to the western markets.

  Secondly, mineral resources were always the subject of secrecy in the particular regime in the USSR. Rare Russian-language publications with general geological characteristics of strategic deposits were confidential and, therefore, not available to the western economic geologists.

In reality, mineral resources of Georgia comprise:
1. Fuel & Energetic Resources;
2. Ferrous Metals;
3. Noble, Non-Ferrous & Light Metals;
4. Rare Metals & Elements;
5. Chemical & Agrochemical Materials;
6. Ceramic Materials;
7. Gems;
8. Facing Materials;
9. Metallurgic, Inert & Building Materials;
10. Mineral Waters.

Distribution of mineral deposits on the territory of Georgia is determined by Geological & Metallogenic Framework. please,   click   




1. Fuel & Energetic Resources
Figure below demonstrates distribution of fuel & energetic resources of Georgia presented by hydrocarbons ,  coal & peat   deposits and thermal sources. Tables below contain information on reserves; No of deposits correspond to those on the map.






Hydrocarbons


Field Enclosing Rocks Reserves
Hydrocarbon Unit of measure Value
1 Sartichala Oligocene sandy-clayey sequence Oil Gas thousand t mln m³ 13,966.600 1,732.438
2 Norio-Martkopi same Oil Gas thousand t mln m³ 14,874.300 2,266.252
3 Satskhenisi same Oil Gas thousand t mln m³ 1,927.100 18.929
4 Mirzaani same Oil Gas thousand t mln m³ 367.600 61.321
5 Patara Shiraki same Oil Gas thousand t mln m³ 293.5 14.946
6 Taribani same Oil Gas thousand t mln m³ 1,001.700 16.996
7 Supsa Quaternary sandy sequence Oil Gas thousand t mln m³ 17.000 11.703
8 Rustavi Oligocene sandy-clayey sequence Gas mln m³ 5,157.000


Coal & Peat


Raw Deposit Technologic characteristics Reserves
Material Unit of Measure Value
9 Hard coal Tkvarcheli moisture - 1.5-3%, ash -34.7%, calorific capacity -3.500-7.500 kcal/kg thousand t 19550
10 Hard coal Tkibuli-Shaori moisture - 6-10%, ash - 10-12%, calorific capacity - 5970-6300 kkal/kg thousand t 377970
11 Brown coal Akhltsikhe moisture - 12-13%, ash - 36%, calorific capacity - 3230 - 4500 kkal/kg thousand t 75766
12 Peat Kobuleti moisture - 94.3%, ash - 22% thousand m³ 2003
13 Peat Imnati moisture - 91%, ash - 23% thousand m³ 29906
14 Peat Nabadi moisture - 90%, ash - 70% thousand m³ 12385
15 Peat Anaklia moisture - 89%, ash - 45% thousand m³ 28074
16 Peat Poti moiture - 80%, ash - 31% thousand m³ 26731


Geothermal Sources


Source Host Rocks Tem-pera-ture,
°C
Mine-raliza-tion, g/l Main solved compounds Interval of water presence in drills, m Output, l/sec
17 Ohurey Upper Cretaceous 106 1.07 Ca 2865-3300 1.07
18 Kingi Upper Cretaceous 107 1.05 Ca 2670-3100 4.30
19 Tsaishi Upper Cretaceous 103 1.20 Ca, Mg 700-1000 18.50
20 Zugdidi Upper Cretaceous 105 0.85 Na, K, Ca, Mg 1800-1880 60.20
21 Samtredia Upper Neogene 50 1.80 Na, K 1269-1280 5.20
22 Mendji Upper Cretaceous 55 2.10 Na, K, Ca, Mg 1816-2057 2.10
23 Lisi Paleogene 64 0.30 Na, K 505-1245 4.0


2. Ferrous Metals


Ferrous metals of Georgia comprise iron and manganese deposits and mines. Their distribution is shown on Figure below. Table below contains information on reserves; No of deposits correspond to those on the map.




Deposit Type Wallrock alteration Cons-
tituent
Grade,% Reserves
item Unitof measure Value
24 Dzama iron-skarn skarn Fe 32.14 ores Fe thousand t thousand t 16,667.0 5,357.0
25 Poladauri hydrothermal quartz-seri-cite-chlorite Fe 36.00 ores thousand t thousand t 6,173.0 2,223.0
26 Tkibuli-Shaori sedimentary none Fe 34.40 ores Fe thousand t thousand t 210,000.0 72,240.0
27 Supsa-Na-tanebi placer none Fe 2-3 ores thousand t thousand t 770,000.0 15,400.0
28 Chiatura sedimentary none Mn 16.6-33.4 ores Mn million t thousand t 225.7 46,688.0
29 Chchari-Adjameti sedimentary none Mn 15.8-28.2 ores Mn million t thousand t 10.033 2,367.4
30 Kvirila sedimentary none Mn 19.2-23.3 ores Mn million t thousand t 27.0 5,307.0
31 Shkhmeri sedimentary none Mn 20.7-28.9 ores Mn million t thousand t 6,398.0 1,424.8


3. Noble, Non-Ferrous and Light Metals


Noble, non-ferrous and light metals of Georgia are enclosed in gold, copper, polymetallic and lead-zinc and aluminum deposits and occurrences. Their distribution on the Georgian territory is presented on Figure below. Table below contains information on reserves; No of deposits correspond to those on the map..





Deposit Type Wallrock alteration Cons-
tituent
Grade,% Reserves
item Unitof measure Value
24 Dzama iron-skarn skarn Fe 32.14 ores Fe thousand t thousand t 16,667.0 5,357.0
25 Poladauri hydrothermal quartz-seri-cite-chlorite Fe 36.00 ores thousand t thousand t 6,173.0 2,223.0
26 Tkibuli-Shaori sedimentary none Fe 34.40 ores Fe thousand t thousand t 210,000.0 72,240.0
27 Supsa-Na-tanebi placer none Fe 2-3 ores thousand t thousand t 770,000.0 15,400.0
28 Chiatura sedimentary none Mn 16.6-33.4 ores Mn million t thousand t 225.7 46,688.0
29 Chchari-Adjameti sedimentary none Mn 15.8-28.2 ores Mn million t thousand t 10.033 2,367.4
30 Kvirila sedimentary none Mn 19.2-23.3 ores Mn million t thousand t 27.0 5,307.0
31 Shkhmeri sedimentary none Mn 20.7-28.9 ores Mn million t thousand t 6,398.0 1,424.8
Se Te Au Ag barite 0.00071 0.00076 0.00018 0.00092 36.3 S Se Te Au Ag barite thousand t t t kg t thousand t 717 561 600 48,247 100 1,662
36 Sakdrisi same same Au Ag Cu 0.00019 0.00030 1.03 ores Au Ag Cu thousand t kg t thousand t 75,600 19,800 22 77.6
37 Tsiteli So-peli same same Au Ag Cu 0.00007 0.00040 1.58 ores Au Ag Cu thousand t kg t thousand t 12,840 8,000 4 202.8
38 Kvemo Bolnisi same same Cu barite 1.46 28.6 ores Cu barite thousand t thousand t thousand t 5,479 80 583
39 David Ga-redji same Au Ag Pb Zn Cu barite 0.00025 0.00150 2.50 5.00 0.80 19.6 ores Au Ag Pb Zn Cu barite thousand t kg t thousand t thousand t thousand t thousand t 2,000 5,000 169 50 100 16.8 1,948
40 Merisi group porpyry Cu-polymetallic quartz-sericite-chlorite Au Ag Pb Zn Cu Bi 0.00007 0.00187 1.80 1.40 2.84 0.01 ores Au Ag Pb Zn Cu Bi thousand t kg t thousand t thousand t thousand t t 3,268 859 18.3 17.4 15.2 77.9 180.5
41 Dambludi hydrothermal quartz-sericite-chlorite Au Ag Pb Zn Cu Cd In Bi 0.00019 0.00301 2.67 5.31 0.76 0.03 0.00260 0.017 ores Au Ag Pb Zn Cu Cd In Bi thousand t kg t thousand t thousand t thousand t t t t 1,869 1,882 56 48 96 13.7 555 21 181
42 Kvaisi hydrothermal quartz-carbonate-kaolinite Pb Zn Ag Cd 2.24 6.47 0.00154 0.02 ores Pb Zn Ag Cd thousand t thousand t thousand t t t 2,851 56.2 197.7 18 279
43 Skatykom same same Pb 6.81 ores Pb thousand t thousand t 174.5 9.8
44 Razdaran-kom same same Pb Zn 1.50 1.00 ores Pb Zn thousand t thousand t thousand t 340 5.1 0.99
45 Rtskhmelu-ri same silicifica-tion Pb Zn 1.61 2.67 ores Pb Zn thousand t thousand t thousand t 255 4.1 6.8
46 Ertso same quartz-carbonate-kaolinite
47 Amtkeli same kaolini-zation Pb Zn 2.36 3.80 ores Pb Zn thousand t thousand t thousand t 285 3.2 7.3
48 Brdzyshra strata-bound carbonate-sericite Pb Zn 1.20 1.00 ores Pb Zn thousand t thousand t thousand t 250 15.5 23.2
49 Dzyshra same same
50 Enguri basin placer none Au kg >3000
51 Khramibasin same same Au kg >4000




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